Causes and Cures of
Stress in Organizations
David S. Walonick, Ph.D.
Job stress in organizations is widespread. About half
of all American workers feel the pressures of job-related
stress. Extensive research shows that excessive job
stress can adversely affect the emotional and physical
health of workers. The result is decreased productivity,
less satisfied, and less healthy workers. This paper will
first discuss the symptoms and causes of stress, and then
explore ways in which managers might reduce stress in
themselves and their subordinates.
Definition of Stress
Stress is an imprecise term. It is usually defined in
terms of the internal and external conditions that create
stressful situations, and the symptoms that people
experience when they are stressed. McGrath (1976)
proposed a definition based on the conditions necessary
So there is a potential for stress when an
environmental situation is perceived as presenting a
demand that threatens to exceed the person's
capabilities and resources for meeting it, under
conditions where he expects a substantial
differential in the rewards and costs from meeting
the demand versus not meeting it. (p. 1,352)
McGrath's definition implies that the degree of stress
is correlated with a persons perceived inability to deal
with an environmental demand. This would lead to the
conclusion that a person's level of stress depends on
their self-perceived abilities and self-confidence.
Stress is correlated with a person's fear of failure.
Arnold and Feldman (1986) define stress as "the
reactions of individuals to new or threatening factors in
their work environment." (p. 459) Since our work
environments often contain new situations, this
definition suggests that stress in inevitable. This
definition also highlights the fact that reactions to
stressful situations are individualized, and can result
in emotional, perceptual, behavioral, and physiological
Williams and Huber (1986) define stress as "a
psychological and physical reaction to prolonged internal
and/or environmental conditions in which and individual's
adaptive capabilities are overextended." (p. 243)
They argue that stress is an adaptive response to a
conscious or unconscious threat. Like McGrath, they point
out that stress is a result of a "perceived"
threat, and is not necessarily related to actual
environmental conditions. The amount of stress that is
produced by a given situation depends upon one's
perception of the situation, not the situation itself. In
other words, stress is a relativistic phenomena.
In Gestalt Therapy Verbatim (Real People Press,
1969) Perls proposes a more general definition, where
stress is a manifestation of thinking about the future.
Anxiety is created by focusing attention away from the
"here and now". It is created by expectations
of the future--the tension between the now and the later.
According to Perls, there is no difference between good
stress and bad stress. They are both created by thinking
about the future. When anxiety finds an outlet, we say
that the stress was motivating; when it doesn't, we call
French, Kast, and Rosenzweig (1985) also emphasized
the idea that stress itself is not necessarily bad.
"The term stress can be considered neutral
with the words distress and eustress used
for designating bad and good effects." (p. 707) They
propose a model that defines an optimum range of stress
in terms of its effect on performance. Stress levels that
exceed an optimum level result in decreased performance
and eventual burnout. Stress levels below a minimum level
result in decreased performance and "rust-out".
Symptoms of Stress
Selye (1946) was the first to describe the phases that
the body goes through in response to a threat. The general
adaptation syndrome model states that the body passes
through three stages. The first stage is an alarm
reaction. The body prepares for a potential emergency.
Digestion slows down, the heart beats faster, blood
vessels dilate, blood pressure rises, and breathing
becomes rapid and deep. All bodily systems work together
to provide maximum energy for fight or flight. The second
stage is resistance. If the stress continues, the body
builds up a tolerance to its effects. The body becomes
habituated to the effects of the stressor, however, the
bodies adaptive energies are being used as a shield
against the stressor. The third stage is exhaustion. When
the body's adaptive energies are depleted, the symptoms
of the alarm reaction reappear, and the stress manifests
itself as an illness, such as ulcers, heart ailments, and
high blood pressure. During the first or second stages,
the removal of the stressor will eliminate the symptoms.
Ivancevich and Matteson (1980) point out that during
the early days of our evolution, we needed the
fight-or-flight response for our survival. "The
problem we encounter today is that the human nervous
system still responds the same way to environmental
stressors, although the environment is radically
different. The tigers are gone and with them the
appropriateness of the fight-or-flight response."
Reitz (1987) writes that individuals in modern society
often substitute other psychological reactions for
flight-or-flight. Substitutions for fighting include
negativism, expression of boredom, dissatisfaction,
irritability, anger over unimportant matters, and
feelings of persecution. Substitutions for fleeing
include apathy, resignation, fantasy, forgetfulness,
inability to concentrate, procrastination, and inability
to make decisions. (p. 239)
Short-term stress has served a useful purpose in our
survival. Long-term stress, however, involves
increasingly higher levels of prolonged and uninterrupted
stress. The body adapts to the stress by gradually
adjusting its baseline to higher and higher levels. For
example, workers in stressful jobs often show an
increased "resting" heart rate. Pelletier
(1977) believes that the deleterious effects of stress
are created only by unrelieved long-term stress. Albrecht
(1979) also believes that the effects of stress are
cumulative in nature. Ulcers do not just happen overnight
in a high stress situation; they are generally the result
of long extended exposure to stress. "The health
breakdown is simply the logical conclusion of a
self-induced disease development over a period of 10 to
20 years." (p. 119)
Job stress can have a substantial negative effect on
physical and emotional health. Williams and Huber (1986)
provide a comprehensive list of the symptoms of stress.
These are: "constant fatigue, low energy level,
recurring headaches, gastrointestinal disorders,
chronically bad breath, sweaty hands or feet, dizziness,
high blood pressure, pounding heart, constant inner
tension, inability to sleep, temper outbursts,
hyperventilation, moodiness, irritability and
restlessness, inability to concentrate, increased
aggression, compulsive eating, chronic worrying, anxiety
or apprehensiveness, inability to relax, growing feelings
of inadequacy, increase in defensiveness, dependence on
tranquilizers, excessive use of alcohol, and excessive
smoking." (p. 246) Furthermore, job stress can make
people more susceptible to major illnesses. High stress
managers are twice as prone to heart attacks as low
stress managers. (Rosenman and Friedman, 1971)
Excessive job-related stress is not a small or
isolated problem. Over one-third of all American workers
thought about quitting their jobs in 1990. One-third
believe they will burn-out in the near future, and
one-third feel that job stress is the single greatest
source of stress in their lives. Nearly three-fourths of
all workers feel that job stress lowers their
productivity, and they experience health problems as a
consequence. (Lawless, 1991, 1992) Furthermore, this is
not exclusively a United States phenomena. A Japanese
poll conducted by the Health and Welfare Ministry in 1988
indicated that 45 percent of workers felt stress from
their jobs. (Asahi News Service, 1990)
Recent studies have found evidence of dangerous
physical changes attributed to prolonged stress. One New
York study reported a twenty gram increase in heart
muscles of those suffering from job stress. There was a
significant "thickening of the heart's left
ventricle, or chamber, a condition that often precedes
coronary heart disease and heart attacks." (Pieper,
C., 1990) Omni magazine (March, 1991) wrote about
a series of experiments with rats to examine the
physiological effects of prolonged stress. The
researchers found that there was actually a loss of
neurons in the hippocampus section of their brains. The
article concluded with a warning that there is some
evidence of a similar neuron loss occurs in humans.
Many researchers have studied the effects of stress on
performance. McGrath (1978) reported that mild to
moderate amounts of stress enables people to perform some
tasks more effectively. The rationale is that improved
performance can be attributed to increased arousal.
However, if the stressor continues, it eventually takes
its toll, and results in decreased performance and
deleterious health consequences. Furthermore, workers are
aware of the toll that stress has had on their own
performances. Half of all workers say that job stress
reduces their productivity. (Lawless, 1992)
Causes of Stress
Stressors can be divided into those that arise from
within an individual (internal), and those that are
attributable to the environment (external). Internal
conflicts, non-specific fears, fears of inadequacy, and
guilt feelings are examples of stressors that do not
depend on the environment. Internal sources of stress can
arise from an individual's perceptions of an
environmental threat, even if no such danger actually
exists. Environmental stressors are external conditions
beyond an individual's control. Bhagat (1983) has
reported that work performance can be seriously impaired
by external stressors. There are many aspects of
organizational life that can become external stressors.
These include issues of structure, management's use of
authority, monotony, a lack of opportunity for
advancement, excessive responsibilities, ambiguous
demands, value conflicts, and unrealistic work loads. A
person's non-working life (e.g., family, friends, health,
and financial situations) can also contain stressors that
negatively impact job performance.
Albrecht (1979) argues that nearly all stressors are
emotionally induced. These are based on peoples'
expectations, or ". . . the belief that something
terrible is about to happen." (p. 83) Thus,
emotionally induced stress arises from one's imagination.
Albrecht believes that our society's number one health
problem is anxiety, and that emotionally induced stress
can be classified into four categories: 1) time stress,
2) anticipatory stress, 3) situational stress, and 4)
encounter stress. Time stress is always created by a real
or imaginary deadline. Anticipatory stress is created
when a person perceives that an upcoming event will be
unpleasant. Situational stress can occur when a person is
in an unpleasant situation, and they worry about what
will happen next. Encounter stress is created by contact
with other people (both pleasant and unpleasant).
Many situations in organizational life can be
stressful. These include: 1) problems with the physical
environment, such as poor lighting or excessive nose, 2)
problems with the quality of work such, as lack of
diversity, an excessive pace, or too little work, 3) role
ambiguities or conflicts in responsibilities, 4)
relationships with supervisors, peers, and subordinates,
and 5) career development stressors, such as lack of job
security, perceived obsolescence, and inadequate
Adverse working conditions, such as excessive noise,
extreme temperatures, or overcrowding, can be a source of
job-related stress. (McGrath, 1978). Reitz (1987) reports
that workers on "swing shifts" experience more
stress than other workers. Orth-Gomer (1986) concludes
that when three shifts are used to provide
around-the-clock production, major disturbances in people
may be unavoidable. One source of environmental stress
ignored in the organizational literature is non-natural
electromagnetic radiation. Becker (1990) reports that the
two most prominent effects of electromagnetic radiation
are stress and cancers. Modern offices are filled with
electronic devices that produce high levels of radiation.
These include computers, video monitors, typewriters,
fluorescent lights, clocks, copying machines, faxes,
electric pencil sharpeners, and a host of other
electronic devices. Human sensitivity to electomagnetic
fields is well-documented, and the design of future
office equipment will most likely involve a consideration
of emitted radiation.
Arnold and Feldman (1986) emphasize the deleterious
effects of role ambiguity, conflict, overload and
underload. Role ambiguity is often the result of mergers,
acquisitions and restructuring, where employees are
unsure of their new job responsibilities. Role conflict
has been categorized into two types: intersender and
intrasender. (Kahn, et al., 1964) Intersender role
conflict can occur when worker's perceive that two
different sources are generating incompatible demands or
expectations. Intrasender role conflict can arise when
worker's perceive conflicting demands from the same
source. Overload is frequently created by excessive time
pressures, where stress increases as a deadline
approaches, and then rapidly subsides. Underload is the
result of an insufficient quantity, or an inadequate
variety of work. Both overload and underload can result
in low self-esteem and stress related symptoms, however,
underload has also been associated with passivity and
general feelings of apathy. (Katz and Kahn, 1978)
Poor interpersonal relationships are also a common
source of stress in organizations. Arnold and Feldman
(1986) cite three types of interpersonal relationships
that can evoke a stress reaction: 1) too much prolonged
contact with other people, 2) too much contact with
people from other departments, and 3) an unfriendly or
hostile organizational climate.
Personal factors are often a source of stress. These
include career related concerns, such as job security and
advancement, as well as financial and family concerns.
Holmes and Rahe (1967) constructed a scale of forty-three
life events, and rated them according to the amount of
stress they produce. The most notable feature of their
instrument is that many positive life changes (i.e.,
marriage, Christmas, vacations, etc.) are substantial
sources of stress. Generally, stress appears to be a
result of any change in one's daily routine.
French, Kast, and Rosenzweig (1985) believe that any
situation that requires a behavioral adjustment is a
source of stress. However, a situation that is stressful
for one person might not be stressful for another. Older
workers seem to be less strongly affected by stressful
situations. (Parasuraman and Alutto, 1984) Individuals
with high self-esteem and a tolerance for ambiguity are
less prone to stress-related illnesses. (Arnold and
Feldman, 1986). There is also considerable evidence that
a person's susceptibility to stress is dependent on their
personality types. Type A personalities (those that seek
out fast-paced, challenging situations) often react to
stress with hostility and anger, while Type B
personalities seem to be have an immunity to the same
stressors (Albrecht, 1979; Friedman and Rosenman, 1974;
Matthews, 1982; Organ, 1979).
Several studies have found that individual's who
believe they have control over their own fate
(internals), perceive less stress in their work than
those who believe their future is determined by other
factors (externals). Genmill and Heisler (1972) reported
that "internals" had more job satisfaction and
perceived their jobs as less stressful than
"externals". They also found that a managers
perceived stress was unrelated to education, length of
time in their career, or their level in the hierarchy.
Another study looked at managers of businesses in a
community that had recently been destroyed by a
hurricane. (Anderson, Hellriegel, and Slocum, 1977).
These researchers found that "internals"
experienced less stress from the catastrophe, and that
their perceived locus of control was a more important
factor than their insurance coverage, the amount of the
loss, or the duration that the company was out of
business. Lawless (1992) reports that ". . . job
stress is a consequence of two key ingredients: a high
level of job demands and little control over one's
work." (p. 4)
Some studies have reported that males seem to be more
prone to stress-related illness than females. Men report
more ulcers and have a higher rate of heart attacks than
women (Albrecht, 1979). Other studies have found no
differences. Friedman and Rosenman (1974) found that Type
A women suffered from cardiovascular diseases and heart
attacks as often as their male counterparts. Women in
managerial positions suffer heart attacks at the same
rate as men in similar positions. (Albrecht, 1979) In a
recent study, Lawless (1992) reported that women suffered
fifteen percent more stress related illnesses than men.
They also thought about quitting their jobs more often,
and reported a higher incidence of burnout. Lawless
proposed that this is the result of unequal pay scales
and a failure of organizations to adopt policies
sensitive to family issues. As more women enter the work
force, the effects on their health are becoming
increasingly apparent. It may be that past differences
between males and females are the result of their
experience in the work force, and unrelated to gender per
Lawless (1991) identified the five most common causes
of worker stress: 1) too much rigidity in how to do a
job, 2) substantial cuts in employee benefits, 3) a
merger, acquisition, or change of ownership, 4) requiring
frequent overtime, and 5) reducing the size of the work
force. Over forty percent of the work force experienced
one or more stress-related illnesses as a result of these
five stressors. Single or divorced employees, union
employees, women, and hourly workers reported greater
stress levels, and a higher likelihood of "burning
out". (p.6-8) In a follow-up study, Lawless (1992)
found similar results except that there was no
significant difference between married and unmarried
workers. However single women with children were more
likely to burn out than married women with children.
"Single parenthood compounds the stress women face
in juggling work and child care responsibilities,
especially when overtime hours are required." (p.
The current recession is, to some degree, responsible
for increased stress in America's work force.
"Private sector workers feel more pressure to prove
their value because of the recession." (Lawless,
1992, p. 6) Nearly half of all workers and supervisors
blame the recession for higher stress levels and lower
productivity. Both are being asked to achieve higher
goals with a reduced work force. Supervisors reported
slightly more stress than workers, however, they were no
more likely to experience job burn out. Lawless proposed
that supervisors' higher salaries and more having more
control over their jobs, partially counteracted the
negative effects of stress. Employees who earned less
than $25,000 reported less stress, but they were more
likely to burn out because they had less control over
their work. Over half of the college graduates in this
income category reported feeling burned out.
Mangers of organizations have a dual perspective of
stress. They need to be aware of their own stress levels,
as well as those of their subordinates. Most of the
literature focuses on ways of reducing stress. However, a
more appropriate approach might be to examine ways of
optimizing stress. French, Kast, and Rosenzweig (1985)
state that the challenge is to minimize distress
and maintain eustress. They point out that the
conditions of organizational life create a series of
paradoxes, that demonstrate the need for balance and
1. Uncertainty can lead to distress, but so can
certainty or overcontrol.
2. Pressure can lead to distress, but so can limbo
or lack of contact.
3. Responsibility can lead to distress, but so can
lack of responsibility or insignificance.
4. Performance evaluation can lead to distress,
but so can lack of feedback concerning performance.
5. Role ambiguity can lead to distress, but so can
job descriptions that constrain individuality. (p.
The role of management becomes one of maintaining an
appropriate level of stress by providing an optimal
environment, and "by doing a good job in areas such
as performance planning, role analysis, work redesign/job
enrichment, continuing feedback, ecological
considerations, and interpersonal skills training."
There are essentially three strategies for dealing
with stress in organizations (Jick and Payne, 1980): 1)
treat the symptoms, 2) change the person, and 3) remove
the cause of the stress. When a person is already
suffering from the effects of stress, the first priority
is to treat the symptoms. This includes both the
identification of those suffering from excessive stress,
as well as providing health-care and psychological
counseling services. The second approach is to help
individuals build stress management skills to make them
less vulnerable to its effects. Examples would be
teaching employees time management and relaxation
techniques, or suggesting changes to one's diet or
exercise. The third approach is to eliminate or reduce
the environmental situation that is creating the stress.
This would involve reducing environmental stressors such
as noise and pollution, or modifying production schedules
Many modern organizations view the management of
stress as a personal matter. An effort to monitor
employee stress levels would be considered an invasion of
privacy. However, Lawless (1991) found that nine out of
ten employees felt that it was the employers
responsibility to reduce worker stress and provide a
health plan that covers stress illnesses. She emphasized
that "employees have no doubt that stress-related
illnesses and disability should be taken seriously.
Employees expect substantive action by their employer and
hold their employer financially responsible for the
consequences of job stress." (p. 12)
Lawless (1991) reported that four different employer
programs were effective in reducing job burn out, where
the percent of people reporting burn out was reduced by
half. Furthermore, when these programs were offered,
there were also half as many stress related illnesses.
They are: 1) supportive work and family policies, 2)
effective management communication, 3) health insurance
coverage for mental illness and chemical dependency, and
4) flexible scheduling of work hours. This study also
reported that the success rate for treating stress
related disabilities was considerably less than the
average for all disabilities, and that the average cost
to treat stress related conditions was $1,925 (both
successful and unsuccessful).
Managers can take active steps to minimize undesirable
stress in themselves and their subordinates. Williams and
Huber (1986) suggest five managerial actions that can be
used to reduce stress in workers.
1. Clarifying task assignments, responsibility,
authority, and criteria for performance evaluation.
2. Introducing consideration for people into one's
3. Delegating more effectively and increasing
individual autonomy where the situation warrants it.
4. Clarifying goals and decision criteria.
5. Setting and enforcing policies for mandatory
vacations and reasonable working hours. (p. 252)
Establishing one's priorities (i.e., value
clarification) is an important step in the reduction of
stress. The demands of many managerial positions cause
the neglect of other areas of one's life, such as family,
friends, recreation, and religion. This neglect creates
stress, which in turn affects job performance and health.
Value clarification is linked to time management, since
we generally allocate our time according to our
priorities. By setting personal priorities, managers and
subordinates can reduce this source of stress. It is
typically the first step in any stress reduction program.
Many sources of stress in organizations cannot be
changed. These might include situations like a prolonged
recessionary period, new competitors, or an unanticipated
crisis. Organizational members generally have little
control over these kinds of stressors, and they can
create extended periods of high-stress situations. People
who adjust to these stressors generally use a form of
perceptual adaptation, where they modify the way in which
they perceive the situation.
Other sources of stress in organizations can be
changed. One particularly effective way for managers to
minimize employee stress is to clarify ambiguities, such
as job assignments and responsibilities. (Arnold and
Feldman, 1986) Employee stress is directly related to the
amount of uncertainty in their tasks, expectations, and
roles. Managers can encourage employees to search for
more information when they are given unfamiliar tasks, or
when they are uncertain of their roles. Another way to
reduce employee stress is to incorporate time management
techniques, as well as setting realistic time schedules
for the completion of projects.
There are many other successful ways of dealing with
stress. These include stress reduction workshops,
tranquilizers, biofeedback, meditation, self-hypnosis,
and a variety of other techniques designed to relax an
individual. Programs that teach tolerance for ambiguity
often report positive effects. One of the most promising
is a health maintenance program that stresses the
necessity of proper diet, exercise and sleep.
Social support systems seem to be extremely effective
in preventing or relieving the deleterious effects of
stress. Friends and family can provide a nurturing
environment that builds self-esteem, and makes one less
susceptible to stress. One study found that government
white-collar workers who received support from their
supervisors, peers, and subordinates experienced fewer
physical symptoms of stress. (Katz and Kahn, 1978)
Managers can create nurturing and supportive environments
to help minimize job-related stress.
Albrecht (1979) hypothesized that there are eight
relatively "universal" factors that come into
play when evaluating the balance between stress and
reward (job satisfaction) in organizations. These are: 1)
workload, 2) physical variables, 3) job status, 4)
accountability, 5) task variety, 6) human contact, 7)
physical challenge, and 8) mental challenge. Each
individual has a "comfort zone" for the eight
factors. The goal of management is to find the
"comfort zone" for each employee that results
in optimal performance without producing undesirable side
effects. Albrecht's taxonomy is important because it
recognizes the necessity of balance. For example,
Taylorism stresses the ideas of maximum output, minimal
task variety, and continuous supervision. The predicted
effect of these imbalances would be stress and a
reduction in job satisfaction. Perhaps many of today's
organizational problems with worker stress are the result
of the effective application of Taylorism.
The social climate of an organization is often viewed
as a cause of stress. However, social climate is a
relativistic concept, and "the social climate of an
organization is whatever most of the people think it
is." (Albrecht, 1979, p. 167) There are three
factors that need to be examined when evaluating social
climate. The first is the degree to which employees
identify with or alienate themselves from the
organization. Employee attitude surveys are an effective
method of measuring this factor. Identification can be
measured through employees pride in membership, and the
extent to which they take initiative and offer
constructive suggestions. Alienation can be detected by
examining whether members openly criticize the
organization, or the degree to which they oppose change.
The second factor of organizational climate is the degree
to which labor and management are polarized. One of the
most effective ways of dealing with this problem is to
make all levels of management more visible and
accessible. Employees are less likely to criticize
management who they see on a regular basis. The goal is
to change to perception from "they" (the
managers) to "we" (the members of the
organization). The third factor is the perceived social
norms of the organization. Social norms are abstract
organizational values, such as trust, fairness, and
respect. Interviews and questionnaires can be used to
ascertain organizational social norms, but corrective
action involves setting up management programs that
clarify organizational values, and may involve replacing
certain managers when necessary.
Quick and Quick (1984) suggest several diagnostic
procedures for determining stress levels in
organizations. Interviews allow in-depth probing, but
they are time consuming and depend primarily on the
listening skills of the interviewer. Questionnaires have
the advantage of being able to process higher volumes of
data, but they often lose the "flavor" or feel
of the responses. Observational techniques (both medical
and behavioral) can be either quantitative or
qualitative. Quantitative techniques might involve
gathering company records, such as the rates of
absenteeism, tardiness, turnover, and production.
Qualitative techniques involve observing workers for
signs of stress-related behavior.
Job engineering and job redesign are recent concepts
that attempt to minimize job-related stress. Job
engineering takes into account the values and needs of
the worker, as well as the production objectives of the
organization. (Albrecht, 1979) It involves a six-step
cyclical process, beginning with defining the job
objectives. This initial step makes statements about
"accomplishing something of recognized value."
(p. 159) The second step is to define the job conditions.
This step specifies the physical, social, and
psychological characteristics of the job. The third step
is to define the job processes, equipment, and materials.
Processes are often presented in a flow chart to show the
sequence of operations. The fourth step is to re-evaluate
the design from the perspective of the worker, the goal
being to achieve a balance between job satisfaction and
performance. The fifth step is to test the job design.
Employees often experience problems not anticipated by
job engineers. The evaluation should look at the
"total combination of person, equipment, materials,
processes, and surroundings as an integrated whole, and
you must measure both productivity and employee
satisfaction before you can say the job is well
designed." (p. 162) The sixth step involves the
ongoing re-evaluation and redesign of the job. Employee
attitudes and values change, and new technology provides
alternatives to the status quo. Job engineering attempts
to be sensitive to these changes, and to modify job
descriptions as necessary.
Sevelius (1986) describes his experience implementing
a wellness education program at a large manufacturing
plant. Several successful techniques were used. Booklets
on specific health subjects were place in "Take
one" bins conveniently located around the plant. The
booklets were positively received and increased employees
awareness and knowledge. Campaigns were undertaken to
highlight the specific themes in the booklets. Group
lectures were tried and found to be ineffective because
less than ten percent of the employees attended them. In
addition, the lectures were video taped, but employees
did not take the time to view them. Medical examinations
generally did not reveal hidden illnesses, however, they
were found to be of considerable value because they gave
employees the opportunity of individual medical
counseling. Sevelius suggests that peer support systems
might also be successful in the workplace.
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